Is it safe?
Plant-based foods contain only minimal amounts of Vitamin B12. An ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet includes eggs and cheese, two important sources of Vitamin B12, although these foods cannot meet a greater need. Since a vegetarian diet is rich in folates, the effects of Vitamin B12 deficiency can often be masked until neurological symptoms manifest 14. For this reason, those who pursue a vegetarian diet or another kind of diet such as Budwig should make sure they take Vitamin B12 supplements to ensure an adequate supply 15.
The hull of flaxseed contains a mucilage that binds water in the intestines, expands and has a laxative effect. As a result, adequate hydration is necessary.
Flaxseed contains cyanogenic glycosides which can release hydrocyanic acid after hydrolysis in the intestine. When flaxseed is consumed in normal quantities, the resorbed quantity of hydrocyanic acid is not considered to pose a threat 16,17.
Allergies to components found in flaxseed have been reported but are very rare 18.
Flaxseed is contraindicated in patients with ileus or stenoses in the gastrointestinal tract.
Flaxseed can absorb orally administered medication and thus have an impact on its efficacy. Consequently, flaxseed (not flaxseed oil) should only be taken a few hours before or after taking medication by mouth to prevent decreased absorption. 7
Current knowledge indicates there is a positive correlation between the energy density of a diet and body weight, which means that a high-protein diet can lead to obesity. Medical societies recommend that weight-control measures take into account the protein content of the diet.
CitationLuc Geeraert, CAM-Cancer Consortium. Budwig diet [online document]. http://www.cam-cancer.org/The-Summaries/Dietary-approaches/Budwig-diet. February 8, 2017.
Assessed as up to date in February 2017 by Barbara Wider.
Fully revised and updated in January 2016 by Markus Horneber.
Assessed as up to date in January 2015 by Barbara Wider.
Assessed as up to date in August 2013 by Barbara Wider.
Summary first published in May 2012 by Luc Geeraert.
- Budwig J. Das Fettsyndrom. Auflage 4A. Freiburg i. B.: Hyperion Verlag; 1996.
- Budwig J. Krebs, ein Fettproblem. Richtige Wahl und Verwendung der Fette. Freiburg i. B.: Hyperion Verlag; 2000.
- Budwig J. Cancer: The Problem and the Solution. Nexus GmbH; 2008.
- Budwig J. Flax oil as a true aid against arthritis, heart, infarction, cancer and other diseases. 3rd Edition. Vancouver: Apple Publishing; 1994.
- Budwig J. The oil protein diet cookbook. Vancouver: Apple Publishing; 1994.
- Budwig J. Cytostatic or cytodynamic treatment of cancer. Hippokrates. 1956;19:605-12.
- Basch E, Bent S, Collins J, Dacey C, Hammerness P, Harrison M, et al. Flax and flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum): a review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Soc Integr Oncol 2007;5(3):92-105.
- World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007
- The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: What the Science Says [online document], accessed 8 February 2017.
- Fabian CJ, Kimler BF: Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids: fishing for clues for cancer prevention. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2013;97-101.
- Fabian CJ, Kimler BF, Hursting SD: Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship. Breast Cancer Res 2015; 17:62.
- Hales KH, Speckman SC, Kurrey NK, Hales DB: Uncovering molecular events associated with the chemosuppressive effects of flaxseed: a microarray analysis of the laying hen model of ovarian cancer. BMC Genomics 2014; 15:709.
- Budwig-videos.com [Website], accessed 8 February 2017.
- Craig WJ. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets. Nutr Clin Pract 2010;25(6):613-20.
- Vegan Society. What Every Vegan Should Know About Vitamin B12 [online document], accessed 8 February 2017.
- Barthet VJ, Bacala R. Development of optimized extraction methodology for cyanogenic glycosides from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum). J AOAC Int 2010;93(2):478-84.
- Yang QY, Song L, Zhang JF, Shen ZF, Liu Q, Liu SN, Zheng WS, Yao CS. Cyanogenetic glycosides and simple glycosides from the linseed meal.Fitoterapia. 2015 Oct;106:78-83.
- Fremont S, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Franck P, Morisset M, Croizier A, Codreanu F, Kanny G. Prospective study of sensitization and food allergy to flaxseed in 1317 subjects. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;42(3):103-11.
- Bechthold A. Food energy density and body weight. A scientific statement from the DGE. Ernahrungs Umschau 2014: 61(1): 2–11. (Online available: DOI 10.4455/eu.2014.002)
The present documentation has been compiled by the CAM-CANCER Project with all due care and expert knowledge. However, the CAM-CANCER Project provides no assurance, guarantee or promise with regard to the correctness, accuracy, up-to-date status or completeness of the information it contains. This information is designed for health professionals. Readers are strongly advised to discuss the information with their physician. Accordingly, the CAM-CANCER Project shall not be liable for damage or loss caused because anyone relies on the information.